Sleep Apnea Propensity and Testing in the Dominican Republic

Summary

  • Sleep apnea is characterized by recurrent episodes of cessation (apnea) or reduction (hypopnea) of airflow during sleep due to obstruction of the upper airway.
  • The estimated prevalence of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing ranges from 3% to nearly 40% depending on the age group and sex in the Dominican Republic.
  • Untreated moderate or severe Sleep Apnea is associated with serious complications.
  • The best therapy for treating Sleep Apnea is CPAP

Sleep Apnea Propensity in the Dominican Republic

Sleep apnea is a complex chronic condition that affects more than 10% of the population and is associated with cardiometabolic and behavioral morbidity. Sleep Apnea is approximately threefold more prevalent in men than in women. The severity of sleep apnea is most often characterized by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), defined as the number of apnea and events of hypopnea per hour of sleep. AHI levels are highly hereditary in the Dominican Republic, with 30% – 40% of the variance explained by genetic factors[1]. Genetic studies have identified Apnea hypopnea index-associated with genetic variants, although these findings were based on single ethnic groups and size and have largely not been replicated across populations.

Sleep Apnea Test in the Dominican Republic

Polysomnography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of Sleep Apnea in the Dominican Republic. Polysomnography, also known as a sleep study, is a test used to diagnose sleep disorders. Polysomnography records your brain waves, oxygen levels in your blood, pulse, and breathing, as well as eye and leg movements during the study. Polysomnography is particularly important when patients are at risk of central sleep apnea or hypoventilation; these conditions are suggested by the presence of neurological disease, neuromuscular disease, congestive heart failure, severe lung disease, opioid use, or serum bicarbonate obesity of more than 27 mmol / L.

With the development of portable monitor technology, home testing for sleep-related breathing disorders is now feasible. Several types of home sleep apnea tests are in clinical use. It records a minimum of three channels of data while the patient sleeps at home. It usually monitors airflow, snoring, respiratory excursion, body position, pulse, and oxygen saturation. [2]

Sleep Apnea Treatment in the Dominican Republic

The most common treatment is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for Sleep Apnea. After your test, your sleep physician will provide next steps.

Reference

  1. Han Chen, Brian E Cade, Kevin J Gleason, Andrew C. Bjonnes: Multi-ethnic Meta-analysis Identifies RAI1 as a Possible Obstructive Sleep Apnea Related Quantitative Trait. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 58(3) Published October 2017. DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2017-0237OC
  2. Cheryl R. Laratta,  Najib T. Ayas, Marcus Povitz, Sachin R. Pendharkar, Diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. 2017 Dec 4; 189(48): E1481–E1488. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.170296
  3. Claudio Vicini, Paul T. Hoff, Filippo Montevecchi: TransOral Robotic Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Practical Guide to Surgical Approach and Patient Management. Publisher Springer,2016
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